What are the Symptoms of Low Blood Pressure(HBP)?

Written By All Video Subscribers on Tuesday, August 17, 2010 | 3:03 PM

What are the Symptoms of Low Blood Pressure(HBP)?

 On its own, low blood pressure (hypotension) does not always cause symptoms. If you have low blood pressure, and you do not have any symptoms, you do not require treatment.

However, low blood pressure can sometimes mean that there is not enough blood flowing to your brain and other vital organs. As a result, you may experience some of the following symptoms:

    * dizziness,

    * fainting (a sudden, temporary loss of consciousness),

    * light-headedness,

    * blurred vision,

    * palpitations (a rapid, or irregular, heart beat),

    * confusion,

    * nausea (feeling like you are going to be sick), and

    * general weakness.

If you experience the symptoms of hypotension after changing positions – for example, standing up – it is known as postural, or orthostatic, hypotension. If you experience these symptoms after eating, it is known as postprandial hypotension.

Postural or orthostatic hypotension

Postural, or orthostatic, hypotension occurs when your blood pressure falls after a sudden movement. For example, you may feel dizzy, or faint, after changing posture, such as sitting up from a lying position, or standing up from a sitting position. This may cause you to lose your balance and fall over. You may also feel light headed, have blurred vision, or lose consciousness.

The symptoms of postural or orthostatic hypotension should only last a few minutes as your blood pressure adjusts to your new position. This type of low blood pressure tends to affect people more as they get older when it can lead to more frequent falls. Similar symptoms may also occur after exercise.

Postprandial hypotension

Your blood pressure can sometimes decrease (fall) after eating, causing dizziness, light-headedness, fainting, and falls. This condition, known as postprandial hypotension, tends to occur more often in older people, particularly in those who have high blood pressure, or a condition such as Parkinson’s disease, or diabetes.

After a meal, your intestines need a large amount of blood for digestion. Your heart rate increases and the blood vessels in other parts of your body constrict (narrow) to help maintain blood pressure. If your heart rate does not increase enough, or if your blood vessels do not constrict enough to maintain blood pressure, your blood pressure will fall. This can then cause symptoms.
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What is The Causes of Low Blood Pressure(HBP)

What is The Causes of Low Blood Pressure(HBP)

 Throughout the day, your blood pressure can vary by between 30-40 mmHg (both systolic and diastolic) depending on what you are doing. Having a stressful week at work, the temperature outside, and even what you had for lunch could affect your blood pressure reading.

Each time that you have your blood pressure measured, it is important that the test is carried out under similar conditions to ensure that the results are consistent. If you have a low blood pressure reading, your GP will first consider the everyday causes that might have affected it, before considering the possible underlying causes.?

Everyday causes

Many factors have a daily, or sometimes even hourly, effect on your heart and circulation. Below are things that could affect your blood pressure and, in some cases, may cause low blood pressure.

    * The time of day – your blood pressure falls overnight so it will be low in the morning.

    * Your age – typically, blood pressure rises as you get older, although postural, or orthostatic, and postprandial hypotension are also more likely in the elderly.

    * How stressed or relaxed you are – if you are stressed, your heart will beat faster and your blood pressure will increase, and the opposite if you are relaxed.

    * How much exercise you do – initially, exercise will raise your blood pressure, but if you are healthy and exercise regularly, your blood pressure will be low when you are resting.

    * Your temperature - if you are cold, your heart beat will slow down and your blood pressure will fall.

    * If you have recently eaten – blood will be used for digesting food in your stomach, so the blood pressure elsewhere in your body will fall.

Underlying causes

If your blood pressure is still considered low after taking into account everyday factors, such as those listed above, there may be another cause. Some possibilities are explained below.

Medication

Some medication may cause hypotension as a side effect. This tends to be orthostatic, or postural hypotension (low blood pressure when you stand up, or change position). Examples of medication that can cause hypotension include:

    * beta-blockers – which may be prescribed after a problem with your heart,

    * alpha-blockers – a medicine that is prescribed to lower blood pressure for people with hypertension (high blood pressure), and

    * some antidepressants.

Your GP will discuss any possible side effects with you when prescribing medication. While you are taking medication, your blood pressure will be carefully monitored if you are considered to be at risk of hypotension.

Serious illnesses or conditions

If you have an acute (short-term) illness, your blood pressure will be measured regularly because it is a good indicator of the severity of your illness. A heart condition, such as heart disease, or a heart attack, can also cause low blood pressure, as your heart may not be able to pump blood around your body.

Autonomic disorders

Autonomic disorders affect your autonomic nervous system and they can cause hypotension. Your autonomic nervous system is part of your nervous system (the network of cells that carry information around your body). It controls the bodily functions that you do not actively think about, such as sweating, digestion, and the beating of your heart.

The autonomic nervous system also controls the widening and narrowing of your blood vessels. If there is a problem with it, your blood vessels could remain too wide, causing low blood pressure. In particular, autonomic disorders tend to cause orthostatic hypotension.

Some examples of autonomic disorders are:

    * diabetes mellitus (a long-term (chronic) condition caused by too much glucose (sugar) in the blood),

    * Parkinson’s disease (a chronic condition that affects the way the brain coordinates body movements), and

    * multiple system atrophy (a disorder that causes the brain signals to the muscles and limbs responsible for movement to deteriorate).

Adrenal glands

The adrenal glands are two small glands that are located just above your kidneys. They produce hormones that control your blood pressure and maintain the balance of salt and water in your body. One of the hormones they produce is called aldosterone, which is responsible for controlling the amount of salt in your body.

If your adrenal glands become damaged – for example through an infection, or a tumour – the production of aldosterone may be reduced, resulting in a loss of salt from your body. This can cause dehydration which, in turn, leads to low blood pressure.

If a problem with your adrenal glands is diagnosed, it can be treated by increasing the amount of aldosterone in your body. This could also be a symptom of Addison’s disease (a condition in which the adrenal glands cannot produce enough of the hormones cortisol and aldosterone). Addison’s disease can also be treated with medication.

Serious injuries and shock

Low blood pressure can also be caused by serious injuries, or burns, particularly if you have lost a lot of blood. This can mean that there is less blood being pumped around your body. Low blood pressure can also occur if you go into shock after having a serious injury.

Other kinds of shock are described below.

Septic shock and toxic shock syndrome

Septic shock and toxic shock syndrome are caused by bacterial infections. The bacteria attack the walls of the small blood vessels, causing them to leak fluid from the blood into the surrounding tissues. This causes a significant drop in blood pressure (severe hypotension).

Anaphylactic shock

Anaphylactic shock, or anaphylaxis, is caused by an allergic reaction to something – for example, a wasp sting or a peanut. During an allergic reaction, your body produces a large amount of a chemical called histamine, which causes your blood vessels to widen and leading to a sudden, severe drop in blood pressure.

Cardiogenic shock

Cardiogenic shock occurs when your heart cannot supply enough blood to your body, so your blood pressure drops. This can happen during a heart attack.

Other causes

Other possible causes of low blood pressure are listed below.

    * Rare nerve conditions - if the nerves in your legs are affected, you may experience a severe drop in blood pressure when you stand up (postural or orthostatic hypotension).

    * Increasing age - as you get older, your arteries can become stiffer. If they do not constrict (get smaller), your blood pressure may drop, particularly when you stand up.

    * Pregnancy - during the early to mid stages of pregnancy, low blood pressure is fairly common.

    * Prolonged bed rest - low blood pressure may possibly occur as a result of moving less and having overall less nervous system activity.

    * Dehydration – low blood pressure may occur following particularly severe dehydration from vomiting and diarrhoea because the lack of water and salt in your body will reduce the volume of your blood.

    * Your genes – some research has suggested that low blood pressure is genetic. If your parents have low blood pressure, it is possible that you could inherit it from them.
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How is Low Blood Pressure(HBP) Diagnosed and Evaluated?

How is Low Blood Pressure(HBP) Diagnosed and Evaluated?

 Low blood pressure (hypotension) can be easily diagnosed by measuring your blood pressure.

Measuring blood pressure

A blood pressure reading is taken using two measurements. The first measurement is known as systolic, which is the pressure in your arteries when your heart contracts and pushes the blood around your body. The second measurement is known as diastolic, which is the pressure in your arteries when your heart refills with blood in between heart beats. Both systolic and diastolic blood pressures are measured in millimetres of mercury (mmHg).

Sphygmomanometer

Your GP, or practice nurse, will use a device known as a sphygmomanometer to measure your blood pressure. This device has an inflatable cuff and a scale of mercury, like a thermometer, as a pressure gauge. The cuff is placed around your upper arm and inflated to restrict the flow of blood in your arm. The air is then slowly released from the cuff.

Your GP, or practice nurse, will watch the mercury pressure gauge and listen to your blood flow in the main artery of your arm using a stethoscope. Upon hearing your heart beat, the systolic pressure will be recorded. When the sound disappears, the diastolic pressure will be recorded.

Alternatively, a digital sphygmomanometer may be used. This measures your pulse using electrical sensors and takes blood pressure readings automatically. Blood pressure testing kits are also commercially available.

After you have had your blood pressure taken, your GP, or nurse, will give you your systolic reading first, followed by your diastolic reading. If your systolic blood pressure is 120 mmHg, and your diastolic blood pressure is 80 mmHg, you will be told that your blood pressure is 120 over 80, which is commonly written as 120/80.

What is low blood pressure?

As a general guide, low blood pressure is a reading of 90/60. However, it is not necessary for both your systolic and diastolic readings to be in this range for it to be considered low blood pressure. For example, a reading of 80/65 would be considered low because the systolic number is in the low range, and 100/55 would also be considered as low because the diastolic number is in the low range.

If you have low blood pressure according to this guide, you do not need to worry. Having low blood pressure is considered healthy as it protects you from the risks and diseases of high blood pressure. You will only need to have treatment if you are experiencing symptoms as a result of your low blood pressure.

Mean arterial blood pressure

As well as measuring your blood pressure, your GP, or practice nurse, may also calculate your mean arterial pressure (MAP). This is the average pressure required to push blood through your body. The reading takes account of blood flowing away from your heart and to it, and it can be a better indication of whether your blood pressure is too low.

Your MAP can be calculated from you normal blood pressure reading using the following formula:

MAP = [ (2 x diastolic figure) + systolic figure] divided by 3

For example, if your blood pressure is reading 120/80, your systolic reading is 120 and your diastolic reading is 80. Your MAP is:

MAP = [ ( 2 x 80 ) + 120 ] / 3 = [ 160 + 120 ] / 3 = 280 / 3 = 93.33 mmHg

If your MAP is below 65 mmHg, it is possible that your brain and vital organs are not receiving enough oxygen. According to this calculation, a low blood pressure reading of 90/60, gives an MAP of 70 mmHg. This is therefore still unlikely to cause health problems.

Postural or orthostatic hypotension

If your symptoms of low blood pressure mostly occur when you change position, (postural or orthostatic hypotension), then your blood pressure may be measured before and after you move. For example, your blood pressure may be measured while you are sitting down and again while you are standing up.

Depending on what your seated blood pressure was, if your systolic reading drops by between 15-30 mmHg when you stand up, you may have orthostatic hypotension.
Underlying causes

Your GP, or practice nurse, will usually be able to diagnose low blood pressure very easily. However, determining the reason for low blood pressure can be more difficult.

If you have an underlying condition that is causing low blood pressure, it is likely that you will have other symptoms as well. You should discuss these with your GP who may recommend that you have further tests.
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How to Get Silky Smooth Legs – Simple Solutions

How to Get Silky Smooth Legs – Simple Solutions

 One of the things that almost every woman would like to have in their life is to have perfect legs. There is a huge difference between having nice legs and having gorgeous legs.

It can quite frequently be difficult to obtain those silky legs, after all everyone has their own unique set of curves don’t they? Get all the help that you need for those classy legs to become a reality. It’s all right here in our library, take a look.

Shaving

The traditional and most popular way to hair free legs is old fashioned shaving.

Pros: It’s easy, quick and-unless you slip- relatively pain free. These days there are so many new razors out there designed especially for us women that we no longer need to risk slicing our gorgeous pins with our man’s dodgy disposable.

Cons: Hair grows back fairly quickly as it only cuts off the hairs that are growing above the skin. So you need to shave every other day if you want to keep that silky smooth feeling. Tips: The best types of razors are the ones with multiple blades. They give a smoother finish without going over the same area more than once and risking irritation

It’s important to remember to use soap or shaving foam for a smooth, injury-free shave and keep your razor wet.
Starting at the ankle, shave in the opposite direction of the hair growth, drawing the razor up the leg.
Also don’t forget to slap on plenty of moituriser afterwards to stop your skin going rough and dry.

Waxing

Pros:If you’re prepared to wait up to 6 weeks to allow your hair to grow between removals then waxing is definitely a good option. Waxing offers the longest-lasting results of all temporary hair removal methods. Some even say that if you have your legs waxed from the an early age- as soon as the hairs appear- then after a year or so you will have very fine or even un-noticeable regrowth.

Cons: The obvious pain is the biggest downside to waxing. Having thousands of tiny hairs ripped from your legs is hardly pleasant but no pain no gain. There is also a higher risk of ingrown hairs and some people are prone to angry red spots and irritation for a few days following a waxing session.

Tips: Waxing can be done at home and there are plenty of waxing kits out there that make it easy. However nervous first timers are best off visiting a beauty salon for the most effective wax.

The pain of waxing is significantly reduces if you relax- easier said than done- but if you take some nice deep breaths and imagine your on an exotic beach somewhere you will hardly notice the ripping sensation.

Soothing after cream is a must after any waxing session. It helps your skin retain it’s pH balance and takes away some of the nasty sting. Most at home wax kits come with it included. Exfoliation is also essential. Ingrown hairs can leave red lumps on the skin and can even get infected so a good scrub will leave you with lovely smooth skin.

Depilatory Creams

Pros: They are fairly fool proof and completely pain free. There are loads of different creams available including one syou can even leave on in the shower then rinse off when you’re done. There is no cutting or ripping of hair involved so there’s very little chance of an accident.

Cons: They can b quite messy. Although there are new products out there that reduce the mess but there is still a certain amount of waiting around with cream covered legs involved. And there’s also the smell. That unmistakable hair removal smell can linger on the skin for a few days. The chemicals in the cream that ‘burn off’ the hairs can also cause irritation in some people.

Tips: Sponge the legs with a damp warm cloth before application as this will soften the hairs and make them easier to remove.
Never exceed the recommended waiting time as this further increases the risk of irritation.
Remove the cream with a sponge or cloth as this makes sure as much hair as possible in removed.

Epilator

Pros: Epilators remove hair from the root by acting like a row of tweezers that pull at the hair. Once removed hair doesn’t grow back for up to 3 weeks and when it does it can be smoother and finer than before.

Cons: Once again it’s all about the pain factor. As you can imagine pull out hairs from the root at turbo speed isn’t exactly pleasant. Also they struggle to remove smaller hairs so repeated use for a few days may be necessary.

Tips: Try and buy an epilator with a detachable ice pack that can be put in the freezer the night before to help numb the pain during use.

Laser Treatment

Pros: Laser treatment aims to reduce the amount of hair you have and, perhaps, lead to some permanent hair removal. It can also lighten the colour of the hair and decrease its thickness.

Cons: Laser treatment is relatively low risk. It can cause some dark marks or pale patches of skin but these usually disappear completely after a few months. Laser treatment can also be quite pricey. It starts at around £40 per session for a small area but for legs you could be looking at up to £400. You will need a few sessions to notice any significant reduction.

Tips: Laser removal works best on pale skin so make sure you let any sun tan fade before you consider getting any.

It also doesn’t work very well on red or grey hair so best avoided by those people.
Some people think Laser treatment guarantees permanent hair removal but in fact it only offers a reduction in most cases. Permanent removal may only occur after quite a number of sessions over a few years.
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